What is Non-fiction?
Non-fiction is writing that is expository and/or descriptive, having to do with ideas, issues, actual events, and/or real people.
However, creative non-fiction borrows elements from fiction, poetry, and drama: plot structure of a true story, dialogue (re-created), “character development” of real people, scenes, summary, and description.
Types of Non-fiction: Narrative Non-fiction and Rhetorical Non-fiction. However, the dividing line between these two types of non-fiction is often fuzzy.*Narrative Non-fiction:Diary: a more intimate, personal, and private chronology of events that is presented sequentially–mostly chronicles personal feelings.
Journal: tends to be a more public forum, the writer being more concerned with ideas and the world at large.
Literary Journal: direct responses to other texts, based on feelings, emotions, imitation, and/or analyses. Often used by writers for getting ideas of their own.
Letter: informal or formal message written directly to a family member, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Letters of famous people are often published in collections.
Epistle: a more formal version of the letter, often intended for public dissemination (publication and/or public speech). As such, the epistle usually addresses public issues, such as religion and politics.
Biography: a chronology of a famous or distinguished person’s life, written by a biographer other than the person whose life is being chronicled. Typically, a biography attempts to cover the person’s entire life.
Literary Biography: a specialized type of biography in which a writer’s life story is told from the perspective of his or her body of literary works.
Autobiography: a writer’s (usually a famous or noted person), version of his or her own life. Typically, the writer attempts to cover his or her entire life thus far.
Memoir: a writer’s (not necessarily a famous or noted person) attempt to emphasize events and/or people he or she has experienced and/or known from his/her own perspective. A memoir does not usually cover an entire life, but, rather, emphasizes key events and people. Memoirs tend to resemble fiction, and, in fact, some memoir writers have been accused of stretching the truth (see James Frey, A Million Little Pieces).Rhetorical Non-fiction presents facts and ideas in such a way to persuade a reader of a viewpoint.Parts of the Formal Essay (Traditional Five or Six Paragraph Format):Journalistic prose: reportage that goes beyond the simple reporting of events; thus, the writer takes and supports a position and then write a piece for publication.
Descriptive prose: writing that is concerned with the physical world: sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell. Also known as “sensory” writing.
Expository prose: writing that explains, offers information, and/or defends a viewpoint. Research is often involved. Often the line dividing the following can be fuzzy:Argumentative/Issue/Persuasive: writing that defends/supports a viewpoint on a controversial issue.Essay: a term for a piece of nonfiction prose that has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion–a complete work.
Informative: writing that is intended to offer information on a subject–usually noncontroversial–without making major judgments on an issue.
Process: writing that explains how something works (informative process) or how to do something (directive process)Informal essay: writing that is more personal, tentative, or subjective–not the “last word” on a topic. Language/tone/register tends to be informal/casual. Creative non-fiction falls into this category.
Formal essay: writing that is serious in tone/register, objective, and formally structured. Extensive research of issues is usually involved.Introduction: the beginning of the essay that introduces the topic and attracts the reader’s attention by offering an anecdote, story, or scenario.
Thesis: the major claim (position of the writer) or what the essayist plans to cover.Explicit Thesis: the major claim or topic of essay that is stated directly in a clear and concise sentence.Body: the “meat” of the essay, the evidence to support the thesis, which is offered to the reader, such as research, statistics, interviews, and solid reasoning/inferences.
Implicit Thesis: the major claim or topic of essay that is implied throughout the essay–not directly stated.
Counterarguments: in an issue essay, recognition, refutation, and/or
accommodation of opposing viewpoints. Usually not needed for the informative essay, but a very powerful rhetorical device for controversial topics.
Conclusion: the ending that wraps up the essay by restating the thesis in different words and sometimes offering an extra “nugget” for the reader for further thinking.