Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Academic Writing--Transition Signals and Reporting Verbs (Patterns 1, 2, and 3)

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List of transition signals:
A. To indicate sequence or order
first, second etc.

at this point

followed by

next, last, finally

previously, subsequently

after that

first of all

and then

next, before, after

concurrently

at this time

meanwhile

simultaneously
B. To introduce/give an example

for example

for instance

in this case

on this occasion

to illustrate

to demonstrate

this can be seen

when/where...

take the case of

thus

subsequently
C. To indicate time

immediately

thereafter

formerly

prior to

previously

finally

then

soon

during

at that time

before, after
D. To logically divide an idea

firstly, secondly, thirdly

Initially, subsequently, ultimately first, next, finally
E. To compare
in a different way/sense

similarly

likewise

whereas

balanced against

by comparison

similar to

like, just like

conversely
F. To introduce an additional idea
in addition

also,

finally,

moreover

furthermore

one can also say

and then

further

another

besides that

nor

so
G. To introduce an opposite idea, contrast or to show exception
however

on the one/other hand

instead

whereas

while

in spite of

yet

nevertheless

but

despite

even though

but one could also say...

still

in contrast

a different view is

unlike

or

notwithstanding
List of Reporting Verbs:

Pattern 1: reporting verb + that + subject + verb
acknowledge

admit

agree

allege

argue

assert

assume

believe

claim

conclude

consider

decide

demonstrate

deny

determine

discover

doubt

emphasize

explain

find

hypothesize

imply

indicate

infer

note

object

observe

point out

prove

reveal

say

show

state

suggest

think

For example,
(a) Da Souza argues that previous researchers have misinterpreted the data.

(b) Researchers have demonstrated that the procedure is harmful.

(c) Positivists find that social disorders are exacerbated by class factors.

(d) Singh infers that both states are essential.

(e) As Da Souza argues, misinterpretations by previous researchers need to be corrected.

(f) As researchers have demonstrated, the procedure is harmful.
Pattern 2: reporting verb + somebody/something + for + noun/gerund
applaud

blame

censure

criticize

disparage

fault

praise

ridicule

single out

thank

For example,
(a) Smith criticized Jones for his use of incomplete data (OR for using incomplete data).

(b) Both Smith and Jones condemn previous researchers for distorting the data.

(c) Banting thanked Best for his contribution to the discovery of insulin.
Pattern 3: reporting verb + somebody/something + as + noun/gerund/adjective
appraise

assess

characterize

class

classify

define

depict

describe

evaluate

identify

interpret

portray

present

refer

view

For example,
(a) Jones describes the findings as resting on irrefutable evidence.

(b) Smith identifies the open window as a source of contamination.

(c) Smith and Jones both present their data as conclusive.

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